Etching House Sell, Buy, Wholesale, Trade, Consignee ,Value fine art Etchings, Prints and Paintings

and can advise on Framing, Art Storage, Handling, and Care for original paintings, fine art Etchings and prints.

Call Rolf on 0413 007 054 or contact us via email

12 months Lay by available at Etching House on 20% deposit.


ART CARE INFO – Informantion to assit in careing for your Art Work Etchings, Prints, Paintings, Etching House –

It has been our experience from seeing many pieces of art over the years that the best way to take care of your art work is to have it framed professionally and use only quality archival materials and techniques.

The cost of framing is often considered important to us all, cheap prices can be a false economy, you may save a few dollars on framing but it could be at the detriment to the art work.

When framing the most important thing is using the correct combination of quality archival materials, if a valuable work of art is incorrectly framed it could over a period of time devalue your fine art Etching, Print or painting should mould, foxing (industry term), or from heat, humidity or dampness or discolouring, mount burn, or fading from excessive UV light occur.

UV Non reflective glass, it has its place and is very good in many circumstances, a few years ago it wasn’t that popular as it muted the appearance of the etchings and Prints as well as original water colour art works, today there has been some great improvements in this area and some specific brands of non-reflective UV protecting glass are superb, the real question is considering the level of reflections versus the premium costs but the real benfit is UV protetcion. We suggest discussing this with your professional framer, they may provide you with more detailed information.

Storage or hanging seek professional advice or services before storing or hanging your artwork, there are services available.
Where to hang you artwork, in our experience it is best never to hang works in direct or indirect natural or artificial light, avoid cold damp or hot places, example in some cases damp or cold brick walls can cause issues as during the day the warmth of the mid-day temperatures can promote condensation particularly if using glass, We found using 3mm acrylic instead of glass often avoids this possible issue, Seek advice at all times from your framer, let your framer know exactly where and how you will place or store your fine art Giclee digital print, etching, water colour painting, or oil painting.

Etching House standard framing choice is we select only well-known, we only use framers that guarantee there materails and workmanship.
Note, Etching House only arranges framing at the request of the customer, Etching House is not responsible of faulty materials ro workmanship.

UV Sun or Light –In our personnel experience Never expose any art be it a fine art print, or original painting art work in direct, indirect, artificial or natural sun light. Never have it exposed to any form of ecess heat or extreme cold, be it sun, fire place, strong lighting, or radiant heat, especially in the case of works on paper, We recommend you choose the best materials and UV protection glass at all times, and inform you framer exactly of your environment that the art will be placed.

Art work frame Backing, Never use backing materials such as plywood, cardboard, MBF board.

Important Note – The content of this ART CARE segment in the ETCHING HOUSE web site is our opinion based on our experiences, and is shared only as general information that may assist customers in evaluating for themselves the best application to care for their artwork. Etching House is not responsible or liable for loss or damage what so ever as a result of information contained in this web site.

Additional information and update –

Many of the fine art prints are made on watercolour archival acid free rag paper and printed with pigment ink, it is important that the paper PH balance be maintained.
The best way to take care of your art work is to have it framed professionally using only quality archival materials and above all the correct technique be used for assembling the frame in particular hinging the artwork, it’s a good idea to obtain several quotes and understand the specifications being offered as best possible, if in doubt ask questions.
Hanging and positioning your Framed artwork:
We find its best to use a professional hanging service, this can often be an great advantage from selecting a safe and a UV protective hanging position.
Where to hang your artwork is important, given the extraordinary high levels of UV and strong damaging sun in Australia that not only can damage our skin, furnishings, paint on cars and buildings etc, it is important to avoid any form of artwork paintings, prints, being exposed to any excessive prolong exposure to natural or artificial direct or indirect light, heat, dryness, cold, dampness, humidity.
Non reflective glass with maximum UV protection, Museum Acrylic UV protection, while more costly it has its place and is very good in many circumstances offering some of the best current protection available for UV and clarity for viewing, choosing the correct type or brand of non-reflective glass or acrylic is important. Your professional framer may be best to advise in each case.

A range of Non reflective UV glass or museum acrylic alternate materials used can assist in protecting your artwork, its best to discuss this with your professional framer, see information about Art Glass found on the internet ( Art Glass information – New conservation grade glass up to 99% UV please copy and paste the following link into Google search engine )

Museums and cultural institutions have carefully monitored lighting and use no windows at all to make sure all their artworks are protected from dreaded UV rays, hanging your artwork at home doesn’t have to be so much of a chore!

UV causes fading to artworks, furnishings, flooring, carpets, paint on cars etc, and can also cause the art materials (canvas or paper, for example) to become brittle.
Canvasses should be hung out of direct or indirect sunlight, this means that when you’re thinking of where to hang your art, have a look and see if a beam of sunlight is going to pass across the spot you’re thinking of, using a professional picture hanging service can often be of help and in cases safer.

Works on paper are more vulnerable to fading, etching prints, silkscreen prints, lithographs prints, collargraph prints, giclee prints, digital prints, original watercolour paintings, this is why when you are getting works framed, it’s important to understand –
How to Care for Your Art – Wall Art-

Keep your artworks out of direct or indirect sunlight, use UV protection, avoid excessive prolonged heat, moisture, any other extreme environment.
Consult a professional framer experienced using archival materials and techniques,
Do not lean anything against the surface of a canvas or framed work,
Dust artworks with a clean, soft rag occasionally to prevent dust build up,
Hang your artworks away from very busy and possibly messy areas,
Wrap your artwork well if you plan to transport it.

Educating yourself about how to protect your artwork is one of the wisest things you will ever do if you plan to continue collecting and investing in art.

Wall Art – Keep your artworks out of direct or indirect sunlight. Your artwork might have a protective layer of varnish, but it is still possible for it to crack or fade if subjected to bright sunlight.
Do not lean anything against the surface of a canvas, Objects near a painting may not seem sharp enough to pierce the canvas, but it is always surprising what will cause a scratch or a rip.
Prevent accidents and store your artworks away from anything that might press against the surface. Try not to lean artworks on one another when storing them. Separate them with pieces of cardboard to avoid damage.
Dust your artworks with a clean, soft rag occasionally to prevent dust build up. Don’t use cleaning products or water!
Hang your artworks away from very busy and possibly messy areas. Over time, artworks can accumulate a thin layer of dust and pollutants, airborne grime from cooking oils, particles from smoking and insect specks. If there is a place to display your piece away from these things, or where it will be somewhat less exposed, try to position it there.
Wrap your artwork well if you plan to transport it. Be sure to put a heavy piece of cardboard over the front and back to protect it. Then bubble wrap and place in a suitable heavy cardboard box. Rough handling can damage both the painting and the frame so pack it securely.
Avoid subjecting your artworks to extreme changes in atmosphere. Avoid excessive dryness, humidity, heat or cold. All of these conditions can affect the state of your artwork in a negative way (canvas puckering, paint cracking, etc.).
Damaged Art Work If your artwork does get damaged, don’t fix it yourself. Take it to the place of purchase for a referral or look up a qualified conservator on your own. Amateur repairs can reduce the value of your artwork drastically.
Do not frame artworks on canvas under glass, because canvas needs to breathe, if it is framed under glass you may trap moisture inside the frame. Canvases experience small, subtle shifts over time due to mild atmospheric changes, so it is best to leave them without glass to allow them to flow with these slight changes.
Do not cover artworks with plastic for long periods of time. If there is humidity in the air, they may start to grow mould.
Cotton sheets are best for keeping dust away.
Check the condition of your artworks periodically. Many people put up an artwork and forget about it, until they notice that it has been damaged. If an artwork is fading or cracking, a brief peek at it can prompt you to move it to a better place and avoid damaging it further.

Artworks on Paper –
When taking care of fine art or art prints created on paper there are a few points specifically for preserving your artwork on paper.
Again, keep your artwork out of direct or indirect sunlight as it may cause fading. Its best to use quality UV glass or acrylic where were necessary.
Avoid extreme heat, dryness or direct or indirect sunlight or artificial light over long periods of time this may result in fading and paper can become brittle and reach a point where it simply crumbles to the touch.
Frame under non-glare glass, treated with a coating to protect the work from UV sunlight if possible. This not only helps protect your artwork from UV sunlight, the non-glare glass makes it easier to see the artwork surface when it is displayed.
The mat surround and backing of your frame should be made of acid free paper and finished with acid free tape. This is to avoid any moisture reaching your painting and damaging it.
It is important to use only professionally a qualified framer experienced in archival framing, stay away from low cost poster framing techniques or services.

Additional information explanations found on the internet –
UV Low Reflective Acrylic – A low-reflective UV acrylic provides the ultimate glazing protection for picture framing; providing 99% UV protection and less than 1% reflection.
Due to its lightweight and shatterproof nature, along with its anti-static properties, it is ideal for pastels and charcoal art work needing protection from ultra violet light and a non-reflective finish. It is for this reason that it is used in museums and art galleries worldwide.
Clear glass – Clear float glass is the most common choice of glass for picture framing due to its availability and low cost. Clear glass will protect against dust and marks but provides no ultra-violet (UV) protection.
Clear plain glass – is used for reproduction prints, posters and artwork of little value or importance.
Non-Reflective glass – Non-reflective glass or non-glare glass is etched on one side to diffuse reflection. It is this non-reflective property that ensures you can see your artwork, even when hung in an area with lots of light. It is important to note that non-reflective glass does not reflect UV light and therefore provides no protection against UV light fading. Non-reflective glass is suitable for most reproduction prints, posters and artwork of little value or importance which is likely to hang on a wall with reflective light. It is not recommended for pictures with fine detail since some clarity is lost. This loss of clarity is further emphasised when the glass is spaced away from the artwork, such as when mat boards or spacers are used.
UV Conservation Clear Glass – Clear Conservation UV glass is used to protect art and objects of importance from fading when framed. The UV glass we use cuts out 99% of ultra violet light, protecting your valuable artwork from UV light fading. It is often recommended using UV conservation glass when the artwork being framed is important, valuable or irreplaceable.
UV Non-Reflective glass – Non-reflective Conservation UV glass has the same ultra violet protective properties as clear Conservation UV glass with the addition of an etched side to diffuse reflection. It is often recommended using non-reflective UV conservation glass when the artwork being framed is important, valuable or irreplaceable and is likely to be hung on a wall with reflective light.
Museum glass – Museum glass is the premium glass that offers 99% of UV protection and less than 1% reflection. Museum glass has the highest brightness and contrast levels available and an optical coating for true colour transmission. In fact, it’s near invisible! This premium museum glass is ideal for dimensional and object framing or when framing is spaced away from the glass, providing a non-reflective finish.




As etching appears to be a lost art today and the public interested in art must have very little knowledge of its technical problems, it may be advisable to explain this as briefly as possible.

A highly-polished copper plate is first cleaned with caustic soda and dilute nitric acid. A hand grip is then attached to it, as the plate must not be touched once it is cleaned. It is then held face up over a gas or oil burner till warmed sufficiently to melt the etching ground. The ground is a composition of bitumen, which, through a covering of fine silk, is rubbed over the surface of the copper in a thin coating. A pad, called a dabber, made of white kid padded with cotton wool, is dabbed forcibly over the ground, spreading it thinly and evenly over the surface of the copper. It must be perfectly smooth and even or it is liable to lift from the copper in the acid. The smoke, but not the flame, alone must touch the ground, or it is liable to be burned and so crack off under the acid. The ground is blackened so that the copper line will shine through it when the design is drawn on the copper with a needle point. The preparation of the plate requires considerable experience before it can be done efficiently.

The next operation is to transfer the design in outline to the blackened ground. An effective method of achieving this transfer is to blacken a sheet of tissue paper with soft lead pencil to act as a carbon copying paper. This is placed over the plate and the pencil design for the etching pinned over it and traced lightly with the etching needle. The plate is then ready to be needled.

As the hand must never touch the ground, a support is placed across the plate for the hand. If a very delicate technique is necessary it must be drawn under a magnifying glass of about a four-inch focus. This enforces an extremely cramped posture on the etcher while working on a plate.

There are various methods of needling a plate, too involved to be discussed in a brief note such as this. The method employed in the etchings here has been to etch out the fine grey tones first, and by a series of re-etching to add the half-tones and blacks. The etching itself is done by placing the plate in a solution of dilute nitric acid which bites only into the parts of the copper exposed by the needling. While in the acid it is carefully timed by the etcher, and this is the most anxious problem he has to face, for if he miscalculates he may either under-etch or over-etch the passage in the acid, and thereby ruin the result of a week or more of careful work in needling the design. No amount of experience can give him assurance over his timing. He may have got a hard copper which etches slowly or a soft one which etches too quickly. The acid is constantly weakening as it works on the plate, and he must keep adding fresh acid to try and keep it at an even strength. Having no means of testing its strength, he must trust to luck or cunning on equal terms to get the result he wants, and he can only be sure of that by wiping off the ground and taking a proof of the plate. If the result is a failure he has no resource but to discard the plate and start all over again with a fresh one. If the result of the first proofing is satisfactory he recleans and regrounds the plate and sets about working on the next section to be etched, and so on, proving and regrounding as he goes till the plate is finally completed. If the technique employed is one dealing with delicate tones and elaborate detail he may be a couple of months over one plate; and that he may discard finally if dissatisfied with its lack of the quality he has sought to achieve. It may be said of the etchings that their average is of one accepted to two discarded.


Hahnemühle Watercolour Paper referd to often as Rag Paper,

Etching House information on Hahnemühle Watercolour Paper used for John Olsen Fine art prints,
Hahnemühle Traditional Artist Papers are produced according to old recipes using high quality raw materials and pure spring water. Hahnemühle combines centuries of experience with modern innovation and artists inspiration since 1584.
Watercolours are fascinating because of their brilliant colours that appear to barely tint the paper with apparent ease.
The easily flowing colours allow gently graded washes in the painting.
Watercolour painting offers an inexpensive introduction to a creative activity because it requires few painting utensils and is easy to handle.
Crucial for the quality of a painting is the surface texture of the watercolour paper. Here one must distinguish between torchon, rough, extra rough, matte and satiny. The more exacting the technical painting demands, the more robust the paper surface must be. Inexpensive papers are made from 100% pulp, high quality and fine papers are made from 100% cotton rag. There are also watercolour papers made from 50% rag and 50% pulp.
Water plays the major role in watercolour painting. Colours applied to white paper using a lot of water allow the paper to reflect through. Small amounts of colour applied in thin and transparent layers display an intense brilliance when using high quality pigments.


A la poupee, A la poupee: a pad or cloth is used to apply printers ink to the printing surface. This can be applied over the entire surface or to various parts of the plate.

Aquatint, Textures and tonal areas can be created by die use of aquatint, a technique where the metal plate is dusted with a fine resin. The plate is positioned horizontally inside an aquatint box, and then a dust storm is created inside the box. Resin particles fall onto the plate evenly and are then fused onto the plate by applying heat to its underside. Those parts of the plate where a tone is not required are covered with acid resist. Tar or varnish can then be painted onto the plate as the artist creates die image. The plate is then immersed in acid, which bites the exposed surface for varying lengths of time depending upon the depending upon the depth of tone required. Because this process can be used to block-in whole tonal masses resembling wash or water colours, it is often combined with Sugar lift,

Sugar lift, The image is drawn onto die plate using a water-soluble solution containing sugar. Then the plate is covered with an acid resist ground and placed in a water bath, during this process the artist’s lines dissolve, which allows the acid to bite into the image.

Suite, Is a series of prints by the same artist, or a group of artists perhaps working around a single theme?

Restrike, This is a reprinting of a plate, usually posthumously, and is therefore neither numbered nor signed.

Cancellation print, Following completion of die edition the plate, stone or stencil is defaced so it cannot be identically printed again. Lithographic stones are usually ground down; silkscreen stencils are cleaned for reuse of the screen. Etching plates and wood and lino cut blocks can be scored from corner to corner, or have holes drilled in them, an impression is then made and this is called a ‘cancellation print’.

Chop, This is a metal, wooden or rubber stamp, which is pressed onto the paper leaving an embossed image and usually on the lower right hand side. It signifies the identity of the artist, workshop, printer, dealer, publisher or collector. Each printer and publisher has their own distinctive chop which proves where the work was created and who published it.

Intaglio, The Italian word intaglio meaning incising or engraving is used today to describe numerous processes of cutting into a surface, usually metal. Intaglio is a printing technique where ink is rubbed into the marks on the plate. The plate is then rolled under pressure through a press, which prints the ink onto the paper. Intaglio is the exact opposite of relief printing where the printing part of the plate (or block) is raised and the non-printing part cut away. Intaglio techniques include etching, mezzotint, dry point, soft-ground etching, hard ground etching, aquatint, stipple engraving, engraving and variations and combinations of each.

Lithography, A print is created when the artist draws onto a porous limestone or zinc plate with a greasy material. Oil based inks are then applied with a roller; ink adheres to the greasy image (lithographic crayon, or a greasy ink called tusche) and is repelled by the damp areas. Paper is then applied to the stone or plate using a press to transfer the design. Lithography is capable of infinitely varied effects of colour, tone and transparency. The final lithograph is often printed from a number of plates or stones, one for each colour.

Dry point, This process is similar to engraving, yet done in such a manner as to leave a ‘burr’ beside each line. When printed, this burr leaves a soft blurred impression and usually wears down quickly (depending upon the skill of the printer) during the editioning process. Hence the practice of collectors wanting a dry point that is ‘low in die edition’ before the burr wears off.

Engraving, It is a process where the surface being used to create the image is incised or inscribed using any hard tool, like a burin, steel needle, spike, or an electric engraving instrument. These grooves or lines are then inked up, and printed under pressure. No acid is used in engraving.

Etching, Etching is the controlled erosion of the surface of a copper, zinc or steel plate usually by acid. First die plate is covered with an acid resist ground such as bitumen or wax. The design is then drawn into die ground with a sharp implement (etching needle, burin or scraper) to expose die metal below. When the artist has drawn through the coated plate it is immersed in an acid bath. The longer the plate is left in the acid the deeper the lines become. A hard ground etching is when the artist draws through a hard coated surface on die plate. A soft ground etching is when the artist draws with a pencil or crayon over a piece of paper which covers a soft coating on the plate. The next step requires die inking and wiping of the plate (as in engraving) so that die ink remains only in the etched lines. It is then printed under pressure onto dampened paper leaving around its edges an embossed plate mark or cuvette.

Hors commerce (H/C), These are usually printed with (but outside) the edition and are used to show die trade, for display, or to sell from. Hence they often show signs of excessive handling. They are marked lower left, beneath the image,

Mezzotint, In place of an engraver’s burin, the artist uses a spiked wheel called a roulette to traverse the areas of the printing plate he or she wants to print black. The rocker, a tool with a convex under surface covered with a multitude of fine hard metal teeth, can be rocked side-to-side across the entire surface of the plate. The plate is first roughed with a rocker, and if printed at this stage would register an overall velvety black. The image is then created by burnishing away the minute barbs left by the rocker, resulting in an infinite range of graduating tonal transitions, working from black to white.

Proof trial, This is an impression taken while the artist is working on a plate, stone or screen to see how the image looks. They are usually marked T/P at the lower left beneath the image, and are outside die edition. Because they show how the artist works by revealing the print in an unfinished state, they are considered unique – and therefore highly valued by col­lectors.

Aquatint, soap ground, Is when the artist paints die plate with a liquid soap solution instead of tar or varnish? The soap solution, like the tar or varnish, protects die painted image on die plate from the acid.

Aquatint, spit bite, Is when the artist bites the plate unevenly by painting acid over the aquatint surface? This gives the final work on paper a washed water-colour look.

Bon a tirer (BAT), Before a publisher starts printing an edition the artist will mark the proof BAT, or Bon a tirer, as the image that die printer uses as a guide for the edition. It is marked Bon a tirer (French for ‘good to pull’) or abbre­viated to Bon or BAT in die lower left, beneath the image. These remain the property of die print workshop.

Burnishing, The artist uses a burnishing tool to polish a plate’s surface, to either remove lines or make corrections.

Cancellation print, Following completion of die edition the plate, stone or stencil is defaced so it cannot be identically printed again. Lidiographic stones are usually ground down; silkscreen stencils are cleaned for reuse of the screen. Etching plates and wood and lino cut blocks can be scored from corner to corner, or have holes drilled in them, an impression is then made and this is called a ‘cancellation print’.

Edition, The total number of identical prints decided by the artist that she or he has decided to make from the plate, stone or screen is called die edition, and is matched to die Bon a tirer (BAT) Edition, special (S/E)

During the process of making die plates the artist may be particularly pleased with an in-state proof and choose to run a small edition of it before working the plate to another stage. This short edition constitutes a ‘special edition’ and is numbered with Roman numerals to differentiate it from the final edition, e.g. Vl/X. Otherwise, it can be a previously editioned plate taken to another stage by die artist, perhaps in another colour as a commemorative edition. It differs from a re strike as it done under the artist’s supervision and is signed and numbered.

Artist proof is a work for the artist to keep for private use, and should not exceed 10% of die edition. During the editioning process there is occasionally (depending on the skill of die master printer) a small percentage of prints that vary slightly to the BAT. They may be perfect in every way except the plate tone may be darker, or lighter, or the registration of the plate on die paper may be out, and these usually make up die A/Ps.

Proof printer’s (P/P), It is customary for the master printer to retain one or two prints (depending on the size of the edition) for him or herself. These are marked P/P at the lower left under the image.

Proof state (S/P) Sometime known as in-state proofs, they are designated at lower left, beneath die image, as S/P, or simply ‘state’ and are taken after each stage of the print is completed. Technically, this term includes trial proofs (T/Ps), however in practice it is usually an either/or usage, governed by die number of plates and stages involved.

Giclee, The term originates from the French meaning ‘to spray’ and uses a inkjet colour application and digital colour separation. Giclee is a computer controlled, fine art print making process. It uses particles of very fine sprayed ink, about 15 microns in size which is four times smaller than a human hair. The microscopic jet-stream spray is applied simultaneously to the paper and is controlled by a crystal frequency. The print is then coated with layers of waterproof U.V. varnishes. The result is a fine art print with flawless colour reproduction and extraordinary consistency. Giclee today really means any high quality ink-jet print and is often used in galleries and print shops to denote such prints, many iconic artists are using this process to day as a means of distributing very affordable iconic works of art, it is important to have proper authenticity at all times with these works.

Another take on the process of Etching

Etching is the method of engraving using acid on a metal surface. It is also a printmaking method wherein the image is carved into a surface of a metal plate with the use of an acid. This acid bores into the metal surface, and leaves behind rough areas or lines if the surface is too narrow.

Etching is a process which is believed to have started in Augsburg, Germany, by Daniel Hopfer who used the technology in armour making. Later on, the method was applied to printmaking.

The metal plate used in etching is usually copper or zinc, which has a thin coating of resin that is resistant to acid. This coating can also be made of some waxy material. The metal plates are usually smoked so that the engravings and lines become clearly visible through the resin. A sharp tool then scratches the metal and exposes it without actually penetrating it.

As the etching design is completed, the plate is immersed in an acidic solution that attacks the exposed metal parts. During this process, called a bath, the plate is immersed, but frequently removed until the lines are etched to their satisfactory depth.

A coating varnish is then applied to stop the acid from attacking the metal surface further. In this process, the lines which were exposed to the acids longer get the darker prints. Other etchers also apply the acids directly on the plate’s surface.

In printmaking; however, the varnish is removed, and the plate is coated with ink after being warmed or heated. The ink is then wiped carefully so that enough amounts remain the etched depressions. A soft, moist paper is then used to cover the plate, and ran through an etching press.

There is a wide range of modifications in etching techniques. Some etchers modify their products by removing undesired lines. They do this by burnishing or by modifying the original state of the plate after their trial print.

Prints appear differently in various stages, and only a few first prints can be made out of a single plate. Etchers also destroy these plates after making a number of prints.

Several methods of etching produce different effects. Soft-ground etching looks like a pencil drawing, while aquatint produces an effect similar to wash drawing. Aquatint is usually used in combination with hard-ground etching.
Pictorial etching, which evolved from burin engraving also originated from Germany, where artists etched on iron as the earliest example of this delicate form of art.

Nowadays, the popular methods of etching are wet and dry etching. Wet etching is a simple method that requires a container or bin with a solution that is meant to dissolve the metal used.

The downside of this process is that it needs a mask to selectively etch the plate, and one has to find a mask that will not dissolve in the prepared solution. This process is fairly suitable for etching on thin films.

Dry etching, is divided into three classes, namely, reactive ion etching (RIE), sputter etching, and vapour phase etching. Several gases are introduced in the RIE method, where plasma is mixed in the gas to break gas molecules into ions. The ions are then accelerated and start reacting to the metal surface.

Sputter etching is similar to RIE, but without the reactive ions. Vapour phase method is the simplest dry etching technique. In this method, the metal plate is placed inside a chamber, where gases are introduced. The design is then dissolved at the metal surface by the chemical reaction with the gas molecules.

The most popular vapour phase etching techniques are silicon dioxide etching (uses hydrogen fluoride) and silicon etching (uses xenon diflouride).